1. Flip video vertically:

ffmpeg -i INPUT -vf vflip -c:a copy OUTPUT

2. Flip video horizontally:

ffmpeg -i INPUT -vf hflip -c:a copy OUTPUT

3. Rotate 90 degrees clockwise:

ffmpeg -i INPUT -vf transpose=1 -c:a copy OUTPUT

4. Rotate 90 degrees counterclockwise:

ffmpeg -i INPUT -vf transpose=2 -c:a copy OUTPUT



  • at the grub prompt, hit a to append options
  • add init=/bin/bash to the end of the kernel command line and press enter

The system will boot to a prompt like ‘bash-3.2#’ enter the following commands at the prompt

  • mount -o remount,rw /
  • vim /etc/fstab

edit the fstab file commenting the errors by adding a # at the begining of each problematic line, save the file

  • reboot by pressing CTRL+ALT+DEL